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Constructing a coroutine scope

This is a chapter from the book Kotlin Coroutines. You can find it on LeanPub or Amazon.

In previous chapters, we've learned about the tools needed to construct a proper scope. Now it is time to summarize this knowledge and see how it is typically used. We will see two common examples: one for Android, and one for backend development.

CoroutineScope factory function

CoroutineScope is an interface with a single property coroutineContext.

interface CoroutineScope { val coroutineContext: CoroutineContext }

Therefore, we can make a class implement this interface and just directly call coroutine builders in it.

class SomeClass : CoroutineScope { override val coroutineContext: CoroutineContext = Job() fun onStart() { launch { // ... } } }

However, this approach is not very popular. On one hand, it is convenient; on the other, it is problematic that in such a class we can directly call other CoroutineScope methods like cancel or ensureActive. Even accidentally, someone might cancel the whole scope, and coroutines will not start anymore. Instead, we generally prefer to hold a coroutine scope as an object in a property and use it to call coroutine builders.

class SomeClass { val scope: CoroutineScope = ... fun onStart() { scope.launch { // ... } } }

The easiest way to create a coroutine scope object is by using the CoroutineScope factory function1. It creates a scope with provided context (and an additional Job for structured concurrency if no job is already part of the context).

public fun CoroutineScope( context: CoroutineContext ): CoroutineScope = ContextScope( if (context[Job] != null) context else context + Job() ) internal class ContextScope( context: CoroutineContext ) : CoroutineScope { override val coroutineContext: CoroutineContext = context override fun toString(): String = "CoroutineScope(coroutineContext=$coroutineContext)" }

Constructing a scope on Android

In most Android applications, we use an architecture that is a descendant of MVC: currently mainly MVVM or MVP. In these architectures, we extract presentation logic into objects called ViewModels or Presenters. This is where coroutines are generally started. In other layers, like in Use Cases or Repositories, we generally just use suspending functions. Coroutines might also be started in Fragments or Activities. Regardless of where coroutines are started on Android, how they are constructed will most likely be the same. Let's take a MainViewModel as an example: let's say it needs to fetch some data in onCreate (which is called when a user enters the screen). This data fetching needs to happen in a coroutine which needs to be called on some scope object. We will construct a scope in the BaseViewModel so it is defined just once for all view models. So, in the MainViewModel, we can just use the scope property from BaseViewModel.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { protected val scope = CoroutineScope(TODO()) } class MainViewModel( private val userRepo: UserRepository, private val newsRepo: NewsRepository, ) : BaseViewModel { fun onCreate() { scope.launch { val user = userRepo.getUser() view.showUserData(user) } scope.launch { val news = newsRepo.getNews() .sortedByDescending { } view.showNews(news) } } }

Time to define a context for this scope. Given that many functions in Android need to be called on the Main thread, Dispatchers.Main is considered the best option as the default dispatcher. We will use it as a part of our default context on Android.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { protected val scope = CoroutineScope(Dispatchers.Main) }

Second, we need to make our scope cancellable. It is a common feature to cancel all unfinished processes once a user exits a screen and onDestroy (or onCleared in case of ViewModels) is called. To make our scope cancellable, we need it to have some Job (we do not really need to add it, because if we don't it will be added by the CoroutineScope function anyway, but it is more explicit this way). Then, we can cancel it in onCleared.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { protected val scope = CoroutineScope(Dispatchers.Main + Job()) override fun onCleared() { scope.cancel() } }

Even better, it is a common practice to not cancel the whole scope but only its children. Thanks to that, as long as this view model is active, new coroutines can start on its scope property.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { protected val scope = CoroutineScope(Dispatchers.Main + Job()) override fun onCleared() { scope.coroutineContext.cancelChildren() } }

We also want different coroutines started on this scope to be independent. When we use Job, if any of the children is cancelled due to an error, the parent and all its other children are cancelled as well. Even if there was an exception when loading user data, it should not stop us from seeing the news. To have such independence, we should use SupervisorJob instead of Job.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { protected val scope = CoroutineScope(Dispatchers.Main + SupervisorJob()) override fun onCleared() { scope.coroutineContext.cancelChildren() } }

The last important functionality is the default way of handling uncaught exceptions. On Android, we often define what should happen in the case of different kinds of exceptions. If we receive a 401 Unauthorized from an HTTP call, we might open the login screen. For a 503 Service Unavailable API error, we might show a server problem message. In other cases, we might show dialogs, snackbars, or toasts. We often define these exception handlers once, for instance in some BaseActivity, and then pass them to view models (often via constructor). Then, we can use CoroutineExceptionHandler to call this function if there is an unhandled exception.

abstract class BaseViewModel( private val onError: (Throwable) -> Unit ) : ViewModel() { private val exceptionHandler = CoroutineExceptionHandler { _, throwable -> onError(throwable) } private val context = Dispatchers.Main + SupervisorJob() + exceptionHandler protected val scope = CoroutineScope(context) override fun onCleared() { context.cancelChildren() } }

An alternative would be to hold exceptions as a live data property, which is observed in the BaseActivity or another view element.

abstract class BaseViewModel : ViewModel() { private val _failure: MutableLiveData<Throwable> = MutableLiveData() val failure: LiveData<Throwable> = _failure private val exceptionHandler = CoroutineExceptionHandler { _, throwable -> _failure.value = throwable } private val context = Dispatchers.Main + SupervisorJob() + exceptionHandler protected val scope = CoroutineScope(context) override fun onCleared() { context.cancelChildren() } }

viewModelScope and lifecycleScope

In modern Android applications, instead of defining your own scope, you can also use viewModelScope (needs androidx.lifecycle:lifecycle-viewmodel-ktx version 2.2.0 or higher) or lifecycleScope (needs androidx.lifecycle:lifecycle-runtime-ktx version 2.2.0 or higher). How they work is nearly identical to what we've just constructed: they use Dispatchers.Main and SupervisorJob, and they cancel the job when the view model or lifecycle owner gets destroyed.

// Implementation from lifecycle-viewmodel-ktx version 2.4.0 public val ViewModel.viewModelScope: CoroutineScope get() { val scope: CoroutineScope? = this.getTag(JOB_KEY) if (scope != null) { return scope } return setTagIfAbsent( JOB_KEY, CloseableCoroutineScope( SupervisorJob() + Dispatchers.Main.immediate ) ) } internal class CloseableCoroutineScope( context: CoroutineContext ) : Closeable, CoroutineScope { override val coroutineContext: CoroutineContext = context override fun close() { coroutineContext.cancel() } }

Using viewModelScope and lifecycleScope is convenient and recommended if we do not need any special context as a part of our scope (like CoroutineExceptionHandler). This is why this approach is chosen by many (maybe most) Android applications.

class ArticlesListViewModel( private val produceArticles: ProduceArticlesUseCase, ) : ViewModel() { private val _progressBarVisible = MutableStateFlow(false) val progressBarVisible: StateFlow<Boolean> = _progressBarVisible private val _articlesListState = MutableStateFlow<ArticlesListState>(Initial) val articlesListState: StateFlow<ArticlesListState> = _articlesListState fun onCreate() { viewModelScope.launch { _progressBarVisible.value = true val articles = produceArticles.produce() _articlesListState.value = ArticlesLoaded(articles) _progressBarVisible.value = false } } }

Constructing a coroutine on the backend

Many backend frameworks have built-in support for suspending functions. Spring Boot allows controller functions to be suspended. In Ktor, all handlers are suspending functions by default. Thanks to that, we rarely need to create a scope ourselves. However, assuming that we do (maybe because we need to start a task or work with an older version of Spring), what we most likely need is:

  • a custom dispatcher with a pool of threads (or Dispatchers.Default);
  • SupervisorJob to make different coroutines independent;
  • probably some CoroutineExceptionHandler to respond with proper error codes, send dead letters2, or log problems.
@Configuration public class CoroutineScopeConfiguration { @Bean fun coroutineDispatcher(): CoroutineDispatcher = Dispatchers.IO.limitedParallelism(5) @Bean fun coroutineExceptionHandler() = CoroutineExceptionHandler { _, throwable -> FirebaseCrashlytics.getInstance() .recordException(throwable) } @Bean fun coroutineScope( coroutineDispatcher: CoroutineDispatcher, coroutineExceptionHandler: CoroutineExceptionHandler, ) = CoroutineScope( SupervisorJob() + coroutineDispatcher + coroutineExceptionHandler ) }

Such a scope is most often injected into classes via the constructor. Thanks to that, the scope can be defined once to be used by many classes, and it can be easily replaced with a different scope for testing purposes.

Constructing a scope for additional calls

As explained in the Additional operations section of the Coroutine scope functions chapter, we often make scopes for starting additional operations. These scopes are then typically injected via arguments to functions or the constructor. If we only plan to use these scopes to suspend calls, it is enough if they just have a SupervisorScope.

val analyticsScope = CoroutineScope(SupervisorJob())

All their exceptions will only be shown in logs; so, if you want to send them to a monitoring system, use CoroutineExceptionHandler.

private val exceptionHandler = CoroutineExceptionHandler { _, throwable -> FirebaseCrashlytics.getInstance() .recordException(throwable) } val analyticsScope = CoroutineScope( SupervisorJob() + exceptionHandler )

Another common customization is setting a different dispatcher. For instance, use Dispatchers.IO if you might have blocking calls on this scope, or use Dispatchers.Main if you might want to modify the main view on Android (if we set Dispatchers.Main, testing on Android is easier).

val analyticsScope = CoroutineScope( SupervisorJob() + Dispatchers.IO )


I hope that after this chapter you will know how to construct scopes in most typical situations. This is important when using coroutines in real-life projects. This is enough for many small and simple applications, but for those that are more serious we still need to cover two more topics: proper synchronization and testing.


A function that looks like a constructor is known as a fake constructor. This pattern is explained in Effective Kotlin Item 33: Consider factory functions instead of constructors.


This is a popular microservices pattern that is used when we use a software bus, like in Apache Kafka.